Found a bunch of these flat-faced longhorn beetles on a dying tree a few weeks ago. I’m fairly confident it’s Astylopsis macula. But there are a gazillion genera of Lamiinae, so I’m happy to be corrected. Would also be very happy to hear from anyone who knows what elytral pits do, other than providing handy identification. I’ve wondered about that for years. Are they vestigial patterns from forewing ancestry? Sound-dampening trick to elude echolocating bats? Are pits just decorations, useful in crypsis or for intraspecific recognition? If you know, would love to hear from you.
Tag Archives: entomology
Found two of these caterpillars on blackberry last week. I really should have brought them back home to see if they would eat morning glory leaves. Apparently they hate morning glory despite being named Schizura ipomoea (and thus traditionally called a morning glory prominent). Also sometimes referred to as the false unicorn prominent. You can distinguish the checkered-fringe from the unicorn prominent (Schizura unicornis) on the basis of head striping (among other differences). But don’t handle them during the identification process: they spray mixture of formic and acetic acid from that dorsal horn on abdominal segment one, and that will hurt and make your skin blister.
According to one study, these caterpillars coat the tissues of freshly-girdled tree stems with fluid. The authors guess that the fluid contains something that blocks the de novo production of chemical defenses in the leaves. This “chew and spit” behavior seems to be common in the family (Notodontidae). More details and papers on the behavior at David Dussourd’s website.
This is a newly-molted variable oakleaf caterpillar (Lochmaeus manteo), with old head capsule still attached. I initially thought the capsule was the head and that the thorax had eyespots, but John and Jane Balaban on Bugguide.net pointed out the obvious to me.
This species sprays formic acid, apparently.
FYI, Al Denelsbeck posted an almost identical image here, complete with close-up of the eyes.
Here are three types of Chrysopidae (green lacewings) I found a few days ago. One had covered itself with insect parts (and spider web), another with (perhaps) fluff from some wooly homopteran (woolly alder aphids?), and a third with bits of lichen. There’s currently no way (as far as I know) to identify these larvae based on their debris preferences. And it seems likely that there are many undescribed species tooling around right in front of us (e.g.). Like many aspects of natural history, there’s a huge need for citizen scientists to forward information on lacewing larvae to experts — that need is apparently described in this article by Catherine Tauber et al. (Side note: don’t publish “calls for citizen science submissions” in paywalled journals that citizens cannot read.)
There are two species of moth that commonly mine grape leaves (Vitis spp.) where I live (Pennsylvania), and I think I’ve figured out how to distinguish them. I’m sharing here just in case somebody might be in need of tips.
The one I most commonly see is the grape leaf miner, Phyllocnistis vitifoliella. It has a very prominent, dark frass line in the center of its mine path, and the epidermis is visibly pushed up by the larva. Further images of the mine (and of the adult) can be found on the relevant BugGuide.net page.
Less commonly found, at least in my immediate area, is the American grape leaf miner, Phyllocnistis vitegenella. Unlike the previous species, there’s no visible frass line (the frass is dark and diffusely deposited, I gather), and the path looks more like the glossy residue left by a slug. A further difference is that late-instar P. vitegenella induce leaf margins to curl slightly prior to pupation. You can see that curling on the upper right part of the leaf in the photograph. BugGuide.net has more mine photographs. Photographs of the adults are here (auf Deutsch).
There are reports of a third species in Pennsylvania (and Kentucky), Antispila viticordifoliella, but I haven’t encountered it. So here’s a link to it’s Wikipedia page, with image from that page. Apparently the frass is collected in irregular lines or big clumps. There’s also A. oinophylla, but apparently it hasn’t been found in Pennsylvania (yet?).
If I’ve made any errors in the above, let me know.