Category Archives: Education

Galapagos mug with English and Spanish maps

I read a lot of books and articles about the Galapagos Islands, and it’s a tad annoying that the islands all have two names — colonial British, and modern Spanish. Most books (but not articles) have a map, but it’s invariably just a monolingual map and also fixed on a given page so it’s hard to refer to frequently. So out of frustration I designed myself a bilingual map mug. Just hold in right hand when reading modern works, and in the left hand when reading something older like Charles Darwin’s, Voyage of the Beagle. It’s also useful when reading about the various endemics that were given names according to the islands where they were first described. E.g., when reading about Microlophus albemarlensis barringtonensis (one of the lava lizards), a quick glance at the mug will tell you that the subspecies is on Isla Santa Fé, though primary species description was for the specimens on Isla Isabela.

I put it up on Redbubble in case you need one for yourself, or need a geeky gift for somebody who’s doing some reading in advance of a trip to the Galapagos.

Mug with English/Spanish maps of the Galapagos

If you’re curious about the map, it’s one I scanned from Darwin’s, Journal of Researches. It’s probably not suitable for navigation purposes, FYI, especially if filled with hot canelazo.

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Kleptoparasitic fly stealing ant juice from jumping spider

I was photographing a spider a few days ago, and one frame that I was about to trash (jumping spider’s eyes not in focus) happened to show a kleptoparasitic fly that was drinking fluids from the captured ant. Because the fly is not especially visible I haven’t tried that hard to ID the fly (probably Milichiidae or Chloropidae), but I did find an interesting page showing a fly in Australia that was found near a salticid called an ant eater (Zenodorus orbiculatus).

Colin Purrington Photography: Insects &emdash; Kleptoparasitic fly on ant killed by jumping spider

If you have time to waste, here are some fun facts about kleptoparasitic flies:

  • Some species are attracted to volatiles released by captured prey (e.g., stink bugs). I have pics.
  • There are apparently some that are specialists on spiders (Brake and von Tschimhaus 2010).
  • It’s usually just females; when males present they might be looking for mating opportunities with females (Ibid.).
  • In Africa. there’s a milchiid that can induce ants to regurgitate (Wild and Brake 2009).
  • Some plants in the Apocynaceae seem to have evolved the ability to mimic the venom volatiles of paper wasps. The scent is attractive to kleptoparasitic flies because the wasps use the venom when they hunt (Heiduk et al. 2015). This is referred to as kleptomyiophily, apparently (new word for me).

If you really need to more, check out the Sorry: the Chloropidae don’t have their own site.

I think the spider is Phidippus princeps. Happy to be told otherwise. Here are some better pics of the spider:

Colin Purrington Photography: Spiders and ticks &emdash; phidippus-princeps-eating-ant-003

Colin Purrington Photography: Spiders and ticks &emdash; phidippus-princeps-eating-ant-001

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Instragramming invasive species in Hawai’i

During my recent trip to Hawai’i I got to wondering how conservation organizations use Instagram to educate the public about invasive species. A quick search pulled up several groups that seem involved, at least occasionally, and I’ll list here just in case you want to follow them (# followers in parentheses):

hawaii-invasive-species-instagramPart of my reason for wasting time on the above was because when I posted a photograph of an introduced frog, I wasn’t sure if anyone on Instagram might care. Potentially, there might be a group or two that might want to mentioned, in the off chance that a species hadn’t been noticed at that particular location. Not being a native, I had no idea which groups to mention, though, so all I did was add some hashtags for the species name as well as #invasive #introduced #nonnative … with the hope that somebody might find it useful someday (unlikely). But the process got me wondering how groups use Instagram to get the word out on how to control invasives. Here are some thoughts on how to do it, with apologies to the groups who are already doing it:

  1. To build buzz about your organization and its goals, repost images of others that show the species you are trying to control. People love to have their images reposted or their accounts mentioned. You can find these images by following people (duh), or by searching Google for Instagram photos with particular keywords (e.g., coqui kauai). The routine is just this: ask them if it would be OK to be reposted/featured … and then give them credit by including Instagram handle (i.e., don’t just give the photographer’s name).
  2. If you don’t want to feature other people’s images, at least patrol other people’s posts that relate to invasive species, endemics, restoration, etc. For example, if somebody posts an adorable photograph of a small frog and says, “Love this little guy; going to send to my uncle on Kauai for his birthday!” … you can urge them not to do that. Or, when somebody posts about clearing invasives from property, you can say thanks (and perhaps invite them to a volunteer day if you’re group is local). And it’s not just people making posts about invasives … many companies are active in promoting pono and have thousands of active followers (@southmauispearfishing, e.g., has *dozens* of posts about invasive roi and what to do about them). The more you interact by favoriting and commenting, the more people on a particular island will see your organization’s work as important and worth supporting.
  3. If your organization has volunteer work days, add an “Instagram name” column to your sign-in sheet. Then mention each person when you post photos from the event (you should do that!). People love to be publicly thanked. Example. Another example.
  4. In your bio and in your posts, remind folks to tag their own images with #invasive #hawaii (or whatever) and species name so that the posts can help educate their followers. Example. Example. You can also dream up custom hashtags such as #hawaiiinvasive if you want (that’s from @kauaiisc, by the way).
  5. When you make presentations about invasives at local schools, show your Instragram handle at start and end. Young adults increasingly don’t care about your web site, your twitter feed, or your phone number but you might get them to follow on Instagram.
  6. Award prizes to people reporting or posting certain kinds of images. People love contests. For example, send some swag to person who posts best selfie with gold dust day gecko (example).
  7. If you have a Facebook page, add a tab for your Instagram feed. It’s easy. You should also automatically add your Instagram posts to your timeline.
  8. If you include a phone number in your bio for reporting a particular species, include an area code in case clueless tourists see call to action. Repeat this number in posts, too … because somebody might not bother to visit your actual home page.
  9. Check Instagram regularly to see whether anyone has posted an image of a species of special concern. For example, you can run a search for “ snake hawaii” to patrol for snake sightings (the search results are mainly Hawaiian shirts with snakes). There used to be several ways to automate such Instagram searches and receive emails … but Instagram blocked them.
  10. If your organization doesn’t have an Instagram account, fix that.

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Moth Night photographs

I’ve been out mothing before (with my dad and his moth friends), but I finally made it to an official National Moth Week event this past Saturday at Natural Lands Trust‘s Hildacy Farm Preserve. It was raining so there wasn’t a great turnout (by the moths), but below are several photographs from the evening.

To set the scene for those of you who haven’t had the experience: we had a flood light, a mercury vapor light, and a blacklight set up next to a couple of white sheets. Any one of them would work just fine, but the more light the better, in general. Even a cell phone screen can attract moths.

Colin Purrington Photography: Insects &emdash; moth-blacklight

The large moth in silhouette above is a Pandora sphinx moth (Eumorpha pandorus). I think the person is entomologist Tanya Dapkey of the University of Pennsylvania. Bigger photo of the moth is below.

Colin Purrington Photography: Insects &emdash; pandora-sphinx-moth

Here’s a copper underwing (Amphipyra pyramidoides), one of two that I found on a tree far away from the lights. E.g., you can go out at night with a flashlight and find moths just hanging out.

Colin Purrington Photography: Insects &emdash; copper-underwing-head

This moth was also just hanging out, avoiding the rain. I think it’s a green arches (Anaplectoides prasina).

Colin Purrington Photography: Insects &emdash; green-arches-moth

Just in case you want to start planning your own Moth Night, National Moth Week will be July 22-30 in 2017.

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Nictitating membrane in a sharpie

If you’ve never been up close to a blinking bird, here’s a GIF that slows down the blink in a sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus). In addition to using the nictitating membrane to moisten their eye, birds of prey invoke them to protect their eyes from branches during a hunting approach and from prey that might fight back. Humans, sadly, don’t have them anymore, save a little bit of tissue called the plica semilunaris.

As an aside, there’s something rather unnerving about a science fiction movie in which a human is portrayed with functioning membranes. I wonder whether part of our reaction (or my reaction, if it’s just me) is that the membranes might signal the onset of aggressive behavior, where the aggressor is about to strike and wants full protection. I wonder whether animals with functioning nictitating membranes have such a perception. Wouldn’t surprise me.

Sharp-shinned hawk nictitating membrane


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